From Sky to Space – The Moon Man & his Mate

“Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace.” [1].

Robert Goddard was an incredible and remarkable visionary in rocket technology with his first US patent filed in 1913 and granted in 1914. Labelled a charlatan by some, Goddard would play a quintessential role in the technology that led to the development of Werner Von Braun’s V2 rockets, the American space program and NASA. Source – Pinterest.

This was Robert Goddard’s response to a reporter post-1919 publication of his, “A Method for Reaching Extreme Altitudes,” in the Smithsonian’s miscellaneous collections.

Goddard moon man, rocket man, rocket propulsion systems
Robert Goddard’s A Method for Reaching Extreme Altitudes made him the subject of ridicule in early days but would be vindicated in the years that followed. Image – Smithsonian

In his paper, Goddard detailed the technical aspects of liquid-fueled rockets, their potential to reach high altitudes, escape Earth’s atmosphere and their ability to be used for scientific and research applications like in the assessment of upper atmospheric conditions. He noted the behavior of materials in a vacuum and discussed rocket design, fuel types, and their guidance systems.

He stated, “It is possible to conceive of rocks being fired by explosives, not only to greater altitudes but to any desired distance horizontally.” [2]

The New York Times gets it wrong

Goddard rocket man, moon man rocket propulsion, Lindbergh
Another two of Robert Goddard’s famous works published by the American Rocket Society – Image courtesy Swan Galleries

Goddard already had two rocket patents by 1914 – one using liquid fuel, and another for a two-or three-stage solid fuel variety. Despite this, the physicist’s ideas were ridiculed and met with skepticism by many in the scientific community who considered him to be a charlatan, causing the engineer and physicist to retreat from public life.

A New York Times editorial on January 13, 1920, dismissed Goddard’s ideas as “absurd”, claiming that, “it is obvious that a rocket could never be made to work in the thin air away from the Earth.” [3]

Six years later, on March 16, 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world’s very first liquid-fueled rocket which traveled 960m, reached an altitude of 12.5m, and attained an approximate speed of 95 km/hr.

The Lindbergh era

With little understanding of the significance of Goddard’s achievements, Lindbergh’s miraculous thirty-three-and-a-half-hour, 3620-mile, trans-Atlantic crossing of May 20-21, 1927, from New York to Paris led to the so-called Lindbergh Boom.

The Lindbergh celebration post his May 20-21, 1927, trans-Atlantic flight success literally set the world alight, and made him the most famous living person in the world. This led to the so called ‘Lindbergh Boom’. What followed was a dramatic advancement in interest, awareness and the monies for the commercial and military aviation industries. Source – Missouri Historical Society

As the old saying goes, what a difference a day makes. So-called Lucky Lindy progressed from a relatively unknown airmail pilot to the most “celebrated living person ever to walk this earth” [4].  He was appointed as a technical advisor for Guggenheim’s Fellowship for the Promotion of Aeronautics in 1927, joining Orville Wright, another famous aviator, on the Guggenheim board.

Lindbergh Weems Guggenheim Aerial navigation communication
A telegram sent by Weems, the grandmaster of avigation, to Lindbergh concerning aerial navigation in September 1928. Lucky Lindy joined the Guggenheim board post his successful New York to Paris flight of May 20-21, 1927, and was very active in securing sponsorship money for Robert Goddard’s work through the foundation.

Distinguished aviator, Elinor Smith Sullivan, later recalls this period: “People seemed to think we [aviators] were from outer space or something. But after Charles Lindbergh’s flight, we could do no wrong. It’s hard to describe the impact Lindbergh had on people. Even the first walk on the moon doesn’t come close. The twenties were such an innocent time, and people were still so religious—I think they felt like this man was sent by God to do this. And it changed aviation forever because all of a sudden, the Wall Streeters were banging on doors looking for airplanes to invest in. We’d been standing on our heads trying to get them to notice us but after Lindbergh, suddenly everyone wanted to fly, and there weren’t enough planes to carry them.” [5]

The Orteig Prize entry form for a successful trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in either direction. It was first offered by the successful French American hotelier Raymond Orteig in 1919 to Alan Hawley, the President of Aero Club of America, on 22 May 1919. The incredible prize of $25,000 was claimed by Lindbergh eight years later post his successful flight in May 1927.

Lindbergh claimed The Orteig Prize, offered in 1919 by Raymond Orteig for the first non-stop flight crossing from New York to Paris or vice versa.  This ushered in an era of change. “A landscape of daredevils and barnstormers was transformed into one of pilots and passengers. In 18 months, the number of paying U.S. passengers grew thirtyfold. . . . The number of pilots in the United States tripled. The number of airplanes quadrupled.” [6]

Lindbergh arriving in Croydon airport in England in June 1927, weeks after his successful trans-Atlantic flight. The worldwide euphoria surrounding his crossing is impossible to understate at the time. Aviatrix Elinor Smith stated, “some people felt like (Lindbergh had been) sent by God to do this”.

Lindbergh’s own words described that historic happening as follows, “I was astonished at the effect my successful landing in France had on the nations of the world.  To me, it was like a match lighting a bonfire”. [7]

Longines Lindbergh hour-angle 18.69N Weems, hour angle
The development of history’s most famous pilot watch, the Longines Hour-angle would arrive three years after Lucky Lindy’s famous flight with its genetic footprint heralding from P.V.H Weems Second-setting watch. It literally arrived around the time Lindbergh and Goddard’s commercial relationship was established and cemented. The Great Depression arrived, and challenges abounded for commercial and military aviation along with the Swiss watch industry. It is believed that a Waltham aircraft clock, now lying in the Smithsonian accompanied Lindbergh and perhaps a (Waltham) branded pocket or fob watch on his record-breaking flight.

On a horological front, mystery always surrounded the timepieces that accompanied Lindbergh on that momentous record-breaking flight. Recent diary discoveries including a handwritten provisions list for the flight, indicate a watch & fob (ticked), and a stopwatch (unchecked).

Lindbergh's navigation tools on the Spirit of St. Louis
The navigational equipment on board the Spirit of St Louis in May 1927. A Waltham cockpit clock also accompanied Lindbergh on his 3620-mile flight made over 33hours and 30 minutes.

Further, an instruments sheet checklist within his diary also notes a timer, likely a Pioneer-branded Speed Timer, and an aircraft clock, both unpriced. It is likely these horological ticking treasures accompanied Lindbergh on that momentous record-breaking flight, however, they would be upgraded in the period that followed.

Lindbergh lucky lindy spirit of St Louis Speedtimer May 1927
Charles Lindbergh’s Pioneer branded Speed timer used for his successful trans-Atlantic crossing in the Spirit of St Louis in May 1927. A postmortem analysis of Lindbergh’s successful flight noted an unusual weather pattern that for the first time in recorded history had a net wind drift of zero for the duration of his flight. Maybe the instruments helped and maybe luck was with him all the way. Image – courtesy Smithsonian.

Navigation in the Air

Whilst aviation interest exploded, one of the most confounding challenges was the need to overcome the complexities of air navigation which had previously been achieved through the use of two techniques – dead reckoning and pilotage. 

Weems communication from September 1928 with Lindbergh noting him being the first person to formally take Weems course on celestial navigation, along with suggestions for improvement and the possibility of a testimonial letter of sorts. Post his trans-Atlantic success, Lindbergh got lost in a night flight from Havana, Cuba to Florida that almost led to disaster. Radio and celestial navigation would be added to dead reckoning and pilotage to aid in overcoming the challenges of determining one’s position in the air.

To this, radio and celestial would be added prior to the advent of radar technologies. This led to one of the most exciting periods of innovation in horological history, facilitating the development of complex purpose-built, unique timing instruments and navigational tool watches to aid in the determination of one’s position in the air.

Weems system of navigation naval academy course materials
The so-called Weems system of Navigation played a central multi-decade role in Air Navigation and aviation’s ‘golden years’.

Credit lies with multiple parties.  P.V.H. Weems, the man whose navigation system was central to aviation for three decades, modified a Waltham pocket watch making the world’s first second-setting watch.

Waltham Vanguard pre Longines Weems. First second setting watch
The very first second setting watch model modified the subsidiary dial on a Waltham Vanguard pocket watch. These were developed for radio navigation and first proposed by P.V.H Weems. The idea would soon be incorporated into a wristwatch adaption by Longines and become one of the most critical instruments for aviators in early navigation. Image – courtesy Smithsonian

This enabled adjustment of the second-hand against a known accurate source, or the so-called Greenwich Time Signal, which became known as the BBC pips.

John Heinmuller, an inventor, pilot, watchmaker, official timekeeper, and the man who was one of the principal architects of Longines and their American agent, Wittnauer’s success. He brought recognition to aviation’s greatest feats and records joining them at the hip to this incredible era. Image – Heinmuller Man’s fight to fly.

Longines, at this time, were unparalleled in precision timekeeping and masters of innovation under their technical director, Alfred Pfister, who improved upon the hand-modified Waltham model, introducing an oversized wrist version, the Weems Second-setting watch.

Their American agent, Wittnauer, utilized the skills of John Heinmuller, a watchmaker and pilot license holder. 

He was instrumental in timing and receiving recognition for all of history’s seminal flights and records.  Heinmuller’s attachment, devotion, dedication, and relationships with the who’s who of the aviation space shaped a miraculous period of horological innovation and history.

The Longines Hour-angle watch

A friend, confidant, and in constant communication with Heinmuller, Lindbergh would design the most famous pilot watch in history, the Longines Hour-angle, which enabled a simplified and expedited calculation of longitude.

World's first hour angle time piece, Lindbergh's calotte 1929. timepiece
The World’s very first hour angle time piece, Lindbergh’s Longines calotte delivered to the US agent Wittnauer on January 25, 1929. The unit of arc markings made to the dial would be borrowed for use on one of the two wrist hour angle prototypes that followed. Both were delivered to Lindbergh in 1930. Image – courtesy Missouri History Museum

The very first prototypes arrived in January 1929 with the delivery of an aircraft calotte, and then ten months later, two prototype wristwatches. 

One of these featured a calibrated turning bezel, the first wristwatch in history with a rotating bezel of this kind, and the other a dial with the unit of arc calibrations marked. Various modifications followed and a production version receiving patent approval from the International Office of the Industrial Property of Berne Switzerland was delivered to the market in October 1931.  

The Hour-angle and Weems models ignited the development of specialist precision aviation timing instruments.  They would be ordered by military departments and grace the hands of sky-bound aviators and aviatrix who pushed new frontiers and helped shaped the world we know today.

Longines vintage Weems 1930's vintage and Lindbergh Hour-angle cal 18.69N
The two most important aviator wristwatch models ever made. The Longines vintage Weems (L) was used for time synchronization by allowing the second hand to be set +/- 30 seconds against the hour and minute hand by using the radio or known accurate source. The other, a first generation early 1930’s vintage Lindbergh Hour-angle, which allowed and expedited the determination of longitude. Both used the famous Longines pocket watch calibre 18.69N and arrived as the world entered the Great Depression. Both would be used by aviation’s who’s who as essential navigation tool watches especially in pre-radar days.

Dual 24hr and hour-angle calottes brought success to history-making flights from Paris to New York, all points in between, and enabled crossing the great oceans of the world.

Military and civilian aviator chronographs from the 1940-1960’s period. From left to right the famous Breitling AOPA Navitimer ref 806 incorporating a slide rule, an oversized 42mm Minerva, a Zenith Cairelli for the Italian Regia Aeronautica and the unmistakable knurled bezel of the WWII Glashute chrono for the German Luftwaffe.

Multi-scale, complex, and high-precision chronographs acquired two independent pushers and were made by Breitling, Heuer, Omega, Longines, Lemania, Rolex, Gallet, Minerva, Universal, Doxa, and a multitude of others. 

Vintage Pilots watches Longines, breitling, eberhard, zenith WEEMS, hour-angle, Lindbergh
An assortment of Vintage 1915 – late 1960’s pilot’s watches from Longines, Breitling, Eberhard, Omega and Stowa. All were essential tool watches for the aviator / aviatrix and built for a dedicated purpose. At times this purpose was not met. This included the small 28mm Longines A-11 which was found to be ‘too small and delicate to be used in the flight as evaluated’ as noted and discovered by collector @seiji_lepine in historical documents.

The Moon Man

Robert Goddard The moon man, rocket man, rocket technology nasa
Robert Goddard and colleagues testing his rocket propulsion technology at Mescalero Ranch, New Mexico.

Lindbergh’s vision never stopped, and in 1929, he became aware of the pioneering rocket scientist and inventor Goddard. He was fascinated with his work, research, articles, and his published papers including – Liquid Propellant Rocket Development (1923) & Rocket Development (1926).  

His participation with Guggenheim enabled him to apply his own expertise and experience to support aviation development, and advances in the space industry, and secure significant funding for ‘The Moon Man’, a belittling and mocking nickname Goddard acquired in the 1920’s. 

Lindbergh’s involvement and appointment to senior government committees on aerospace development led to the creation of the successful ‘Lindbergh Line’.  This expanded the successes of commercial aviation in the 20th century and was a series of air routes linking the United States with Central and South America.

It was launched by Juan Trippe, who owned Pan American Airways, in October of 1929. It marked a major milestone in the development of commercial aviation and established Pan American Airways as one of the leading airlines in the world.

Pan Am first transpacific flight in Manila 1935 - Image Smithsonian
An early Pan Am clipper and the first transpacific flight, whilst stopped in Manila in 1935. The world well on its way to becoming a small place – Image courtesy Smithsonian.

In 1930, Goddard took a two-year break from the physics department at Clark University, and with a small crew of workers moved to Mescalero Ranch in Roswell, New Mexico, to continue his research in seclusion. He was close friends with Lindbergh, thanking him by letter on June 12, 1932 [8], for securing (Guggenheim) funding for his projects.

A letter from Robert Goddard’s base at Mescalero Ranch in Roswell, New Mexico, thanking Lindbergh for securing sponsorship for his rocket work from the Guggenheim Foundation.

Charles Lindbergh, an advocate for Goddard and his research, helped secure a grant from the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation in 1930. With that money, Goddard and his wife moved to Roswell, New Mexico, where he could conduct research and launch rockets while avoiding the scrutiny and criticism of his colleagues and the press.

Albert Kisk, Harry F, Guggenheim, Robert Goddard, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, N. T. Ljungquist, Roswell, New Mexico September 23, 1935

Standing in front of the rocket in the launch tower on September 23, 1935, are (left to right): Albert Kisk, Goddard’s brother-in-law and machinist; Harry F. Guggenheim; Dr. Robert H. Goddard; Col. Charles A. Lindbergh and N.T. Ljungquist, machinist.

Image courtesy of NASA, Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The evidence for it being in the future was confirmed by Goddard’s real progress in the rocket stakes.  On May 8, 1933, whilst in the midst of the great depression and funding pressures for science, Goddard wrote to Lindbergh “It appears that the rocket will have applications as an anti-aircraft weapon, owing to the high speed and controllability.  You may remember that we have obtained speeds of over 500 miles an hour, with no attempt at lightness….” [9]

Robert Goddard rocket man moon man, propulsion technology
Looking decidedly like the precursor to Wernher Von Braun’s V2 rockets and the age of manned NASA space flights that lay a few short years beyond. Source – Pinterest.

By the mid-1930s, Goddard’s rockets had broken the sound barrier at 741 mph and flown to heights of 1.7 miles.

Lindbergh proposed his own ideas for stratospheric flights, including the use of sealed and pressurized Stratosphere Tunnel, to test altitudes up to 50,000ft. The proposal lacked substance, and whilst he began advocating for rocket-powered aircraft and rockets, the technology was not advanced enough at the time and was considered impractical and more a vision of the future.

The Final Frontier

The need for something above and beyond the sky was noted by Goddard in one passage, “…as you have probably noticed, the public interest in the many scientific researches which ought to be carried out in the stratosphere…together with-altitude and high-speed flying appears to be increasing.” [10]

The mind of Robert Goddard was fixated on rocket technology and the moon that lay beyond. In a way, his work, Lindbergh’s aviation exploits that led to his work on Guggenheim’s board, and the financing efforts that followed contributed to a range of little and big ticking pilot watch treasures that followed in subsequent years.

The space frontier arrived with Goddard’s early and experimental rocketry work and that of other scientists, engineers, and military figures attracting the attention and inspiring the German military and Wernher von Braun.  Braun, a German engineer, and scientist was a key figure in the development of the V-2 rocket program that commenced in the early 1930s, with its first successful launch in October 1942. The V2 reached an altitude of around 95km, making it the first human-made object to reach space.

Seikosha Tensoku WWII military aviator's watch
The famous Seikosha TENSOKU WWII Japanese Aviator’s 47mm chronograph from WWII had an oversized explorer type dial with radium Arabic markers to increase legibility and the onion crown for easier use with gloves.

The catastrophic events of WWII, ushered in pilot watches made to military specifications.  Robust, precise, at times oversized, featuring turning bezels and chapters, their requirements often included high visibility radium and other glowing dial materials to aid legibility and nighttime applications.

Horological creations from IWC, Lange, Stowa and Wempe – including the B-UHR, an oversized 55mm pilot’s watch – accompanied aviators in air raids. 

Ministry of Defence (MOD), individual and commercial orders were placed pre, during and post war for watches meeting so called Mark IX, X, XI and Type XX specifications. 

Depending on order requirements these were filled by IWC, Jaeger, Breguet, Breitling, Dodane et al. Weems second setting pieces were used by the English, Poles and Czechs in the Battle of Britain, by the US military and incredibly Imperial Japanese Navy pilots alongside the famed Seikosha in the skies over the Pacific.

Longines Big Indian, Weems, Lindbergh, Hour angle, 12.68z Chrono, Swiss Air
Longines had a multi decade zenith from 1910-1950’s developing and supplying many of the most important pilot watches ever made. These were supplied to the who’s who in aviation’s so called ‘golden years’ period. This includes the so called ‘Big Indian‘ (BL) supplied to Avadi Air force base in Chennai (Madras), Weems, Lindbergh hour-angle, 47mm 12.68z Chrono models for assorted militaries and the famous Swiss Air (TL) supplied in the 1950’s to their pilots.

Other three hand, Weems, split second, slide rule, hour angle, 24hour dial, sidereal time, and complicated pilot’s chronographs from a multitude of makers including Gallet, Lemania, Longines, Universal, Minerva, Nardin, Omega, Excelsior Park and Zenith became pilot’s chosen wrist companions.  These aviator watches were used in a myriad of commercial, civilian and military applications.

Looking formidable, the V2 rocket created fear in the home countries of the allies. More than 3000 were launched by the Wehrmacht from October 1942 during WWII. This piece pictured in Holland in 1945. Post war, under Operation Paperclip, the German scientists including Wernher von Braun et al were brought to America and this technology was developed further. It would soon become the backbone of the American Space Program. Image –

The V2 program was of course a success for the German engineers involved and one of the most ambitious weapons development projects of the war. The advanced German technology and knowledge essentially caused the onset of the space race and would be used after the war by the United States, Russia et al. 

Harry S. Truman approved Operation Paperclip, which saw Wernher von Braun and his team of German engineers and scientists brought to the United States to work on the Army’s rocket program at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

Breitling cosmonaute ad first watch in space
The first Swiss watch worn in space, February 1962 and the Breitling Cosmonaute ad celebrating this achievement. The model would find favour with pilots, astronauts and watch enthusiasts.

This paved the way for the American space program, and the formation of NASA on October 1st 1958. It was created under the National Aeronautics and Space Act which sought to coordinate and direct non-military space activity in the United States.

Taking its name from the gods, the Mercury Program, followed less than a week later on October 7th with intent to develop the technology, protocols and procedures necessary to launch man into space.

Success followed on February 20th, 1962 with John Glenn becoming the first American as part of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission.  This era necessitated specialist astronaut timing equipment and the birth of Breitling’s 24-hour Navitimer –  the Cosmonaute.

The Astronaut name had already been reserved by Bulova and perhaps Yuri had a Swiss relative working in Breitling at the time.

Scott Carpenter’s design request and improvements to his R.A.A.F mate’s Navitimer had been taken on board by Breitling’s US subsidiary.  The piece was delivered by Willy on May 20, 1962 – just four days prior to Carpenter’s Aurora 7 flight that orbited the earth three times over five flight hours.

Breitling pilot watches - copilot and navitimer
An ad for two of history’s most famous 1950’s and 60’s pilot watches – the Breitling Co-pilot AVI and the 806 AOPA Navitimer. Both models would be central tool watches for pilots and be the choice of airlines in the commercial aviation age that followed and exploded post WWII.

 The specialist Navitimer piece, would be renamed Cosmonaute and be the very first Swiss watch worn in space.  It featured a wider bezel for use with gloves, a 24-hour dial and an extendable bracelet. In essence, it was the first watch designed and adapted for space use by an Astronaut and not NASA.


Von Braun served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Centre, which developed the Saturn V rocket used to launch the Apollo missions to the moon. Von Braun’s team played a major role in the success of the Apollo program, and he retired from NASA in 1972, remaining a consultant until his death in 1977.

Robert Goddard, the father of modern rocketry passed away on Aug. 10, 1945, missing the age of space flight and receiving little attention for his 214 patents in propulsion research, guidance systems, and other technologies that contributed immensely to launch systems and the scientific exploration of space.

Today an important reminder of the Rocket or Moon Man – his name finally up in lights at a major NASA space research laboratory – a plaque outside The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) located in Greenbelt, Maryland.

It was almost impossible to build a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work of Goddard and it wasn’t until the successful launch of the Soviet Union’s Sputnik satellite in 1957, and the launch of the first American satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958, that Goddard’s ideas began to gain widespread acceptance.

The New York Times admits its mistake

Vindication for ‘The Moon Man’ came a little too late, a day after Apollo XI set off for the Moon, in July of 1969, the New York Times printed a correction to its 1920 editorial section, stating that “it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error.”

The New York Times correction of 1969 concerning the ridiculing of Goddard in 1920.

Lindbergh’s dedication to aviation from the days of wooden planes to supersonic jets inspired countless people of all nations to pursue the skies and beyond. This love of flight endured well into the age of space exploration as he bore witness to the launch of Apollo XI.

Breitling 812 reference 1970's GMT chrono manual wind valjoux 724
The rare 1970’s Breitling manual wind GMT chrono reference 812 using the valjoux 724. One of the many flight chronographs that would tie in with the aviation, plane travel jet set age.

Today, flight watches with 24-hour time, GMT hands, chronograph, and other complex functions now accompany those who fly the plane, many of those behind, and others on the ground in the jet set, fashion, transportation, military and commercial age. Many of these creations are looked at, admired, talked about, and collected, and hopefully one way or another their story finds its way to Flightbirds.

Omega speedmaster 18k flightmaster 18k 1969,1970
A pair of 18k Omega Speedmaster and Flightmaster dedicated specialist pilot watches that possibly if not for the work of Robert Goddard and Charles Lindbergh may never have been created. The Speedmaster would become the preferred watch of the American space program.

Lindbergh and Goddard’s far reaching legacies are still inspiring flight right into the 21st century. Whilst the former created history’s most famous pilot watch, the Longines hour-angle, to conquer the skies, Lindbergh played his small part in the need for, and in the formation of almost all pilot watches, including the Omega Speedmaster.

A watch that really is from the Sky to Space, and as their caseback states, ‘Flight qualified for all manned space missions’.

Omega Speedmaster man on the moon 145-022 Goddard NASA Lindbergh
One of the most famous back cases of all watch models with the text speaking of an age of manned space flight.. who knows. Goddard and Lindbergh played their little part in making it all happen.

Both characters, alongside a passion for history, ticking treasures and their stories, all played a part inspiring Flight Birds: the hundred plus years of all pilot watches from Sky to Space.


Berg, A. Scott. Lindbergh, (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1998), as cited in Belfiore (2007)

Guthrie, Julian. ‘How Charles Lindbergh Inspired Private Spaceflight,’ Time, (AOL Time Warner: New York City, Sept. 20, 2016),

Heinmuller John P.V. ‘IV Charles Augustus Lindbergh,’ Man’s Fight to Fly, (New York: Aero Print Company, 1945).

A Method for Reaching Extreme Altitudes, Robert Goddard 1919(Smithsonian Collections).

NASA – Robert Goddard: A Man and His Rocket

Jennings, Peter. & Brewster, Todd. The Century, (New York: Doubleday, 1998).

Lindbergh, Charles. Charles Lindbergh An American Aviator (,

[1] NASA – Robert Goddard: A Man and His Rocket

[2]  A Method for Reaching Extreme Altitudes, Robert Goddard, Smithsonian collection

[3]  New York Times article January 13, 1920

[4] A. Scott Berg, Lindbergh, (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1998) p6

[5] Peter Jennings and Todd Brewster, The Century, (New York: Doubleday, 1998), pp. 420.

[6] The Raymond Orteig Prize (1919-1927): Challenge History ( Diamandis and Kotler

[7]  A. Scott Berg, Lindbergh, (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1998) p135

[8] Letter to Charles Lindbergh from Robert Goddard June12, 1932 (Missouri Museum)

[9] Letter to Charles Lindbergh from Robert Goddard May 8, 1933 (Missouri Museum)

[10] Letter to Charles Lindbergh from Robert Goddard May 8, 1933

Leave a Comment